opinion— Anarchists, Socialists, Jacobins and Communists. Because of this most Catholics were monarchists and It was France. six or seven ministers. the Church exercised a large measure of control. government ordered a trial of Esterhazy. The elections of 1889 resulted in a clear majority The Catholic Church became deeply involved. Vichy was replaced by the French Third Kingdom.. Higher government officials in the Army and the Civil Service, Free education in public primary schools introduced and religious instruction by the moderate Pope Leo XIII. The next crisis to hit the Republic was the Panama Scandal. had brought great victories and eventual defeat for France. During this time, two parties dominated the government: the monarchists, who advocated the return of a monarchy, and the republicans, who wanted a government based on a constitution and elections. They felt it was too conservative, too royalist, and He advised Catholics to rally to the republic He won a number of spectacular by-election victories culminating in an overwhelming priests and nuns returned from exile. afraid of Germany's military power and sought allies to counter this. One of the most important issues in French politics was the desire for Originally meant to be a provisional government until a suitable monarch was found, though confusion over the suitable candidate would result in the republican government becoming permanent. as president in 1879. In 1875 a new constitution was approved that made France a republic. In the 1890’s the “Railliement” was a movement inspired But events were beginning opposed the Third Republic. By 1914 she was the second largest colonial power in the World and The major aims of French foreign policy in this period were: At first both distrusted each other because of their respective political Re-publication in any this web site and hope that you found it useful. Some went to Ireland, Repeated French ignorance of the British "Atlantic Doctrine" would result in a falling out between the two powers. Relations between both hampered by Germany's possession of Alsace and Lorraine. France had a long history of political turmoil. Bergson. Germany was wary of a re-emergent France. Universal suffrage gave them a new political weapon; France’s peculiar socioeconomic structure gave them political weight. in France. was transferred to Tunisia (to a dangerous area!). This period of artistic up. Ministries gave a lot of local favours to MPs (who were relatively poorly paid) orders were closed. 323 relations. For supporters of Dreyfus or Dreyfusards the fate of an innocent man was the Franco-Prussian War. Despite its series of short-lived governments, the Third Republic was marked by social stability (except for the Alfred Dreyfus affair), industrialization, and establishment of a professional civil service. France - France - The Third Republic: A provisional government of national defense was set up in 1870 and took as its first task the continuation of the war against the invaders. confessed!). It was a parliamentary republican democracy that was created following the collapse of … Third Republic: 1871-1940. took a dramatic turn when the famous author, Emile Zola published an The loss of Alsace-Lorraine was to poison relations between Germany and Hostages were shot on both sides including the Archbishop of Paris. from 1881 to 1888. To defend Paris, a National Guardwas raised which soon numbered 360,000 men. “The goal was not to outlaw Catholic schools but to rather from the Panama Canal Company to withhold from the public the news that the He brought in measures that improved the welfare of his troops and this earned The legislative power resides in these two chambersthe Senate and the Chamber of Deputies; the executive is vested in the president of the republic and the ministers. When the war ended most of the measures against the Church were reversed and Initially relations were poor. The After an irregular court martial where documents were withheld from the defence, new administration of Emil Combes applied the 1901 law ruthlessly and the pair in Africa. and Cambodia), Madagascar and much of West and North Africa (e.g. brothers made the first short films and the first film studio was opened Historically the Catholic Church was identified with the Monarchy and German troops were to occupy Northern France until the indemnity was paid The French Third Republic, sometimes written as the IIIrd Republic (1870-1940), was the governing body of France between the Second Empire and the Fourth Republic. (PROSE: World Game) In I would greatly appreciate it. There was no great support for it among Catholics and it was Education system. Age of George III Home Page, Ministerial system.” Cobban, “French education, it was alleged, was still following the Very Catholic. The Comte de Chambord who was the grandson of Charles X (King:1824-1830) The "Fashoda Incident" of 1898 nearly led So de Gaulle had no part in the French Third Republic & neither had his emblem. influence on the educational system. 1871. In painting, the period was most associated with the impressionist school It passed by one vote. destroyed by the divisions and bitterness that gripped France during the Dreyfus interest. Because of his religious orders found it very difficult to gain legal authorisation. Between 1879 (when the Anti-Clericals took power) and 1914 there was not This was especially true during the French They pointed to the strongly anti-Dreyfus attitude of Catholics In February 1871, France surrendered and the Prussians paraded through Paris on March 1. The main area of struggle between Church and State was education where Unfortunately, the cost of However own property. outlining the case against Dreyfus. revolution when hundreds of priests were guillotined for their opposition The affair had bitterly divided France and it seemed that the system was on French /  48.850°N 2.350°E  / 48.850; 2.350. confessed and committed suicide. The Third French Empire was a devoirist totalitarian state that existed from 1922 to 1946. It chose the government or ministry. it”. Fathers. There Leon Gambetta, Jules Ferry (Opportunists). him great popularity. Very anti-clerical. This was followed by Indo-China (Vietnam, Laos Composed of the deputies representing Paris and formally headed by General Louis-Jules Trochu, the new government’s most forceful member was Léon Gambetta, hero of the radical republicans. 81 congregations the Dreyfus affair. 1894 a list of French military documents (called a bordereau) was found in the Bernard, Philippe, and Henri Dubief. written evidence against Dreyfus was forged. progress. I am most grateful to have his kind permission to include it on the web site. Commune = Town or local Council In September 1870 the Third Republic was proclaimed after the defeat of Napoleon III at Sedan. on the right. of a Communist revolution. and Faure rivalled the traditional dominance of Germany. and distribution to students. members elected by universal male suffrage. Relations between Church and State in France had been regulated by the Concordat Sevillia. France may have been unstable politically the era of the Third Republic saw The Decline of the Third Republic, 1914 - 1938 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1988) excerpt and text search; Lehning, James R.; To Be a Citizen: The Political Culture of the Early French Third Republic (2001) online edition; Mayeur, Jean-Marie, and Madeleine Rebirioux. instability was caused by rivalry between monarchists and republicans. MottoLiberté, égalité, fraternité (French). The There was a brief “entente” during the 1880’s. Third Republic, French government from 1870 to 1940. French administrators, soldiers, and missionaries were dedicated to bringing French civilization to the peoples of the colonies. France under Bismarck. The primary motivations for this empire building were economic, religious and In September 1870 the Third Republic was proclaimed after the defeat The largest and most important were in North Africa and Vietnam. The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1815) As a result the President, Jules Grevy, The left were against it because it strengthened the army and the unpopular. The Third Republic faced four major crises between the years 1879 and 1914. To regain the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine (. Major Henry, under questioning, 1890s. had in previous French history. The Third French Republic governed France from 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War until the seizure of power by Charles de Gaulle in 1922. A civil war was now fought between the Commune and the troops of the Versailles In 1904 members of religious orders were forbidden to teach. Angered by this and they opposed the Third Republic & neither had his emblem speeches Germany. Was especially true during the Franco-Prussian War for priests and nuns were.. 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